2021-09-12 16:37:39外语类272



  Part I Writing

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the following topic. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.




  Part II Listening

  Section A

  Directions:In this section,you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A , B , C and D, and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet I with a single line through the centre.

  Question 1

  A.At a grocery

  B.In a parking lot

  C.In a car showroom

  D.At a fast food restaurant

  Question 2

  A.Have a little nap after lunch

  B.Get up and take a short walk

  C.Change her position now and then

  D.Stretch legs before standing up

  Question 3

  A.The students should practice long-distance running

  B.He doesn’t quite believe what the woman says

  C.The students’ physical condition is not desirable

  D.He thinks the race is too hard for the students

  Question 4

  A.They do not want to have a baby at present

  B.They cannot afford to get married right now

  C.They are both pursuing graduate studies

  D.They will get their degrees in two years

  Question 5

  A.Twins usually have a lot in common

  B.He must have been mistaken for Jack

  C.Jack is certainly not as healthy as he is

  D.He has not seen Jack for quite a few days

  Question 6

  A.The man will take the woman wo the museum

  B.The man knows where the museum is located

  C.The woman is asking the way at the crossroads

  D.The woman will attend the opening of the museum

  Question 7

  A.They cannot ask the guy to leave

  B.The guy has been coming in for years

  C.They should not look down upon the guy

  D.The guy must be feeling extremely lonely

  Question 8

  A.Collect timepieces

  B.Become time-conscious

  C.Learn to mend locks

  D.Keep track of his daily activities

  Questions 9 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  Question 9

  A.It winds its way to the sea

  B.It is quickly rising

  C.It is eating into its banks

  D.It is wide and deep

  Question 10

  A.Get the trucks over to the other side of the river

  B.Take the equipment apart before being ferried

  C.Reduce the transport cost as much as possible

  D.Try to speed up the operation by any means

  Question 11

  A.Ask the commander to send a helicopter

  B.Halt the operation until further orders

  C.Cut trees and build rowing boats

  D.Find as many coats as possible

  Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  Question 12

  A.Help him join an Indian expedition

  B.Talk about his climbing experiences

  C.Give up mountain climbing altogether

  D.Save money to buy climbing equipment

  Question 13

  A.He was very strict with his children

  B.He climbed mountains to earn a living

  C.He had an unusual religious background

  D.He was the first to conquer Mt. Qomolangma

  Question 14

  A.They are like humans

  B.They are sacred places

  C.They are to be protected

  D.They are to be conquered

  Question 15

  A.It was his father’s training that pilled him through

  B.It was a milestone in his mountain climbing career


  C.It was his father who gave him the strength to succeed

  D.It helped him understand the Sherpa view of mountains

  Section B

  Directions:In this section,you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage,you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A, B, Cand D. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet I with a single line through the centre

  Passage One

  Question 16

  A. By reviewing what he has said previously

  B.By comparing memorandums with letters

  C.By showing a memorandum’ s structure

  D.By analyzing the organization of a letter

  Question 17

  A.They spent a lot of time writing memorandums

  B.They seldom read a memorandum through to the end

  C.They placed emphasis on the format of memorandums

  D.They ignored many of the memorandums they received

  Question 18

  A.Style and wording

  B.Structure and length

  C.Directness and clarity

  D.Simplicity and accuracy

  Passage Two

  Questions 19 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  Question 19

  A.Accurate dating

  B.Professional look

  C.Direct statement of purpose

  D.Inclusion of appropriate humor

  Question 20

  A.They give top priority to their work efficiency

  B.They make an effort to lighten their workload

  C.They never change work habits unless forced to

  D.They try hard to make the best use of their time

  Question 21


  B.Sense of duty

  C.Work efficiency

  D.Passion for work

  Question 22

  A.They are addicted to playing online games

  B.They try to avoid work whenever possible

  C.They find to pleasure in the work they do

  D.They simply have no sense of responsibility

  Passage Three

  Questions 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  Question 23

  A.He lost all his property

  B.He was sold to a circus

  C.He was forced into slavery

  D.He ran away from his family

  Question 24

  A.A carpenter

  B.A businessman

  C.A master of his

  D.A black drummer

  Question 25

  A.It named its town hall after Solomon Northup

  B.It declared July 24 Solomon Northup Day

  C.It freedom all blacks in the town from slavery

  D.It hosted a reunion for the Northup family

  Section C

  Directions:In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

  Section C

  Intolerance is the art of ignoring any views that differ from your own. It26_____ itself a hatred. Stereotypes, prejudice, and27_____.Once it intensifies in people, intolerance is nearly impossible to overcome. But why would anyone want to be labeled intolerant. Why would people want to be 28_____about the world around them? Why would one want to be part of the problem in America, instead of the solution?

  There are many explanations for intolerant attitudes, some 29_____ childhood. It is likely that intolerant folks grew up 30_____ intolerant parents and the cycle of prejudice has simply continued for 31_____. Perhaps intolerant people are so set in their ways that they find it easier to ignore anything that might not 32_____ their limited view of life. Or maybe intolerant students have simply never been 33_____ to anyone different form themselves. But none of these reason is an excuse for allpwing the intolerance to continue.

  Intolerance should not be confused with disagreement.It is,of course,possible as diasgree with an opinion without being intolerant of it.If you understand a belief but still don't believe in that specific belief,that's fine.You are 34_____ your opinion.As a matter of fact.35_____ disseniers持异议者are important for any belief.If we all believed the same things.we would never grow,and we would never learn about the world around us,does not stem frim disagreement.It stems from fear,And fear stems from fear.And fear stems from ignorance.

  Part III Reading Comprehension 40 minutes


  Section A

  His future subjects have not always treated the Prince of Wales with the respect one XXXX expect. They laughed aloud in 1986 when the heir to the British36_____ told a TV reporter that he talked to his plants at his country house, Highgrove, to stimulate their growth. The Prince was being humorous- “My sense of humor will get me into trouble one day”, he said to his aids随从-but listening to Charles Windsor can indeed prove stimulating. The royal37_____ has been promoting radical ideas for most of his adult life. Some of his38_____, which once sounded a bit weird, were simply ahead of their time. Now, finally, the world seems to be catching up with him.

  Take his views on farming. Prince Charles’ Duchy Home Farm went39_____ back in 1986. When most shoppers cared only about the low price tag on suspiciously blemish-free无瑕疵的 vegetables and40_____ large chickens piled high in supermarkets.

  His warnings on climate change proved farsighted,too.Charles began41_____ action in warming in 1990 and says he has been worried about the42_____ of man on the environment same be was a teenger.

  Although he was gradually gained international43_____ as one of the world's lending conservationists,many British people still think of him as an34_____ person who talks to plants.This year,as it happens,South Korean scientists proved that plants really do45_____ to round.So Charles was ahead of the game there,too.
















  Section B

  Directions: In this section,you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2. High School Sports Aren’t Killing Academics

  AIn this month’s Atlantic cover article, “The Case Against High-School Sports,” Amanda Ripley argues that school-sponsored sports programs should be seriously cut. She writes that, unlike most countries that outperform the United States on international assessments, American schools put too much of an emphasis on athletics, “ Sports are embedded in American schools in a way they are not almost anywhere else,” she writes, “Yet this difference hardly ever comes up in domestic debates about America’s international mediocrity平庸in education.”

  BAmerican student-athletes reap many benefits from participating in sports, but the costs to the schools could outweigh their benefits, she argues, In particular, Ripley contends that sports crowd out the academic missions of schools: America should learn from South Korea and Finland and every other country at the top level of international test scores, all of whom emphasize athletics far less in school. ”Even in eighth grade, American kids spend more than twice the time Korean kids spend playing sports,” she writes, citing a 2010 study published in the Journal of Advanced Academics.

  CIt might well be true that sports are far more rooted in American high schools than in other countries. But our reading of international test scores finds no support for the argument against school athletics. Indeed, our own research and that of others lead us to make the opposite case. School-sponsored sports appear to provide benefits that seem to increase, not detract减少from, academic success.

  DRipley indulges a popular obsession痴迷with international test score comparisons, which show wide and frightening gaps between the United States and other countries. She ignores, however, the fact that states vary at least as much in test scores as do developed countries. A 2011 report from Harvard University shows that Massachusetts produces math scores comparable to South Korea and Finland, while Mississippi scores are closer to Trinidad and Tobago. Ripley’s thesis about sports falls apart in light of this fact. Schools in Massachusetts provide sports programs while schools in Finland do not. Schools in Mississippi may love football while in Tobago interscholastic sports are nowhere near as prominent. Sports cannot explain these similarities in performance. They can’t explain international differences either.

  EIf it is true that sports undermine the academic mission of American schools, we would expect to see a negative relationship between the commitment to athletics and academic achievement. However, the University of Arkansas’s Daniel Bowen and Jay Greene actually find the opposite. They examine this relationship by analyzing schools’ sports winning percentages as well as student-athletic participation rates compared to graduation rates and standardized test score achievement over a five-year period for all public high schools in Ohio. Controlling for student poverty levels, demographics人口统计状况, and district financial resources, both measures of a school’s commitment to athletics are significantly and positively related to lower dropout rates as well as higher test scores.

  FOn-the-field success and high participation in sports is not random-it requires focus and dedication to athletics. One might think this would lead schools obsessed with winning to deemphasize academics. Bowen and Greene’s results contradict that argument. A likely explanation for this seemingly counterintuitive与直觉相反的result is that success in sports programs actually facilitates or reflects greater social capital within a school’s community.

  GRipley cites the writings of renowned sociologist James Coleman, whose research in education was groundbreaking. Coleman in his early work held athletics in contempt, arguing that they crowded out schools’ academic missions. Ripley quotes his 1961 study, The Adolescent Society, where Coleman writes, “Altogether, the trophy奖品case would suggest to the innocent visitor that he was entering an athletic club, not an educational institution.”

  HHowever, in later research Coleman would show how the success of schools is highly dependent on what he termed social capital, “the social networks, and the relationships between adults and children that are of value for the child’s growing up.”

  IAccording to a 2013 evaluation conducted by the Crime Lab at the University of Chicago, a program called Becoming a Man-Sports Edition creates lasting improvements in the boys’ study habits and grade point averages. During the first year of the program, students were founds to be less likely to transfer schools or be engaged in violent crime. A year after the program, participants were less likely to have had an encounter with the juvenile justice system.

  JIf school-sponsored sports were completely eliminated tomorrow, many American students would still have opportunities to participate in organized athletics elsewhere, much like they do in countries such as Finland, Germany, and South Korea. The same is not certain when it comes to students from more disadvantaged backgrounds. In an overview of the research on non-school based after-school programs, researchers find that disadvantaged children participate in these programs at significantly lower rates. They find that low-income students have less access due to challenges with regard to transportation, non-nominal fees, and off-campus safety. Therefore, reducing or eliminating these opportunities would most likely deprive disadvantaged students of the benefits from athletic participation, not least of which is the opportunity to interact with positive role models outside of regular school hours.

  KAnother unfounded criticism that Ripley makes is bringing up the stereotype that athletic XX are typically lousy蹩脚的classroom teachers. “American principals, unlike the XX XX of principals around the world, make many hiring decisions with their sports teams in mind, which does not always end well for students,” she writes. Educators who seek employment at schools primarily for the purpose of coaching are likely to shirk推卸teaching responsibilities, the argument goes. Moreover, even in the cases where the employee is a teacher first and athletic coach second, the additional responsibilities that come with coaching likely comes at the expense of time otherwise spent on planning, grading, and communicating with parents and guardians.

  LThe data, however, do not seem to confirm this stereotype. In the most rigorous study on the classroom results of high school coaches, the University of Arkansas’s Anna Egalite finds that athletic coaches in Florida mostly tend to perform just as well as their non-coaching counterparts, with respect to raising student test scores. We do not doubt that teachers who also coach face serious tradeoffs that likely come at the expense of time they could dedicate to their academic obligations. However, as with sporting events, athletic coaches gain additional opportunities for communicating and serving as mentors导师that potentially help students succeed and make up for the costs of coaching commitments.

  MIf schools allow student-athletes to regularly miss out on instructional time for the sake of traveling to athletic competitions, that’s bad. However, such issues would be better addressed by changing school and state policies with regard to the scheduling of sporting events as opposed to total elimination. If the empirical evidence points to anything, it points towards school sponsored sports providing assets that are well worth the costs.

  NDespite negative stereotypes about sports culture and Ripley’s presumption that academics and athletics are at odds with one another, we believe that the greater body of evidence shows that school-sponsored sports programs appear to benefit students. Successes on the playing field can carry over to the classroom and vice versa反之亦然. More importantly, finding ways to increase school communities’ social capital is imperative to the success of the school as whole, not just the athletes.

  46.Stunets from low-income families have less access to off-campus sports programs.

  47.Amanda Ripley argues that America should learn from other countries that rank high in international tests and lay less emphasis on athletics.

  48.According to the author,Amanda Ripley fails to note that stunents'performance in exams varies from state to state.

  49.Amanda Ripley thinks that athletic coaches are poor at classroom instruction.

  50.James Coleman's later resrarch make an argument for a school's social capital.

  51.Reaearchers find that there is a ppsitive relationship between a school's commitment to athletics and academic achievements.

  52.Aa rigorous study finds that athletic coaches also do well in raising students'test scores.

  53.According to an evaluation,spograms contribute to students's academic preformance and character building.

  54.Amanda Ripley believes the emphasis on school sports shuold be brought up when trying to understand why Aamerican students are mediocre.

  55.James Coleman suggests in his earlier writings that school athletics would undermine a school's image.

  Section C

  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. . You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Passage one

  It is easy to miss amid the day-to-day headlines of global economic recession, but there is a less conspicuous kind of social upheaval剧变underway that is fast altering both the face of the planet and the way human beings live. That change is the rapid acceleration of urbanization. In 2008, for the first time in human history, more than half the world’s population was living in towns and cities. And as a recently published paper shows, the process of urbanization will only accelerate in the decades to come—with an enormous impact on biopersity and potentially on climate change.

  As Karen Seto, the led author of the paper, points out, the wave of urbanization isn’t just about the migration of people into urban environments, but about the environments themselves becoming bigger to accommodate all those people. The rapid expansion of urban areas will have a huge impact on biopersity hotspots and on carbon emissions in those urban areas.

  Humans are the ultimate invasive species—when the move into new territory, the often displace the wildlife that was already living there. And as land is cleared for those new cities—especially in the dense tropical forests—carbon will be released into the atmosphere as well. It’s true that as people in developing nations move from the countryside to the city, the shift may reduce the pressure on land, which could in turn be good for the environment. This is especially so in desperately poor countries, where residents in the countryside slash and burn forests each growing season to clear space for farming. But the real difference is that in developing nations, the move from rural areas to cities often leads to an accompanying increase in income — and that increase leads to an increase in the consumption of food and energy, which in turn causes a rise in carbon emissions. Getting enough to eat and enjoying the safety and comfort of living fully on the grid is certainly a good thing — but it does carry an environmental price.

  The urbanization wave can’t be stopped — and it shouldn’t be. But Seto’s paper does underscore the importance of managing that transition. If we do it the right way, we can reduce urbanization’s impact on the environment. “There’s an enormous opportunity here, and a lot of pressure and responsibility to think about how we urbanize,” says Seto. “One thing that’s clear is that we can’t build cities the way we have over the last couple of hundred years. The scale of this transition won’t allow that.” We’re headed towards an urban planet no matter what, but whether it becomes heaven or hell is up to us.

  56. What issue does the author try to draw people’s attention to?

  A. The shrinking biopersity worldwide.

  B. The rapid increase of world population.

  C. The ongoing global economic recession.

  D. The impact of accelerating urbanization.

  57. In what sense are humans the ultimate invasive species?

  A. They are much greedier than other species.

  B. They are a unique species born to conquer.

  C. They force other species out of their territories.

  D. They have an urge to expand their living space.


  58. In what way is urbanization in poor countries good for the environment?

  A. More land will be preserved for wildlife.

  B. The pressure on farmland will be lessened.

  C. Carbon emissions will be considerably reduced.

  D. Natural resources will be used more effectively.

  59. What does the author say about living comfortably in the city?

  A. It incurs a high environmental price.

  B. It brings poverty and insecurity to an end.

  C. It causes a big change in people’s lifestyle.

  D. It narrows the gap between city and country.

  60. What can be done to minimize the negative impact of urbanization according to Seto?

  A. Slowing down the speed of transition.

  B. Innovative use of advanced technology.

  C. Appropriate management of the process.

  D. Enhancing people’s sense of responsibility.

  Passage Two

  When Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg launched thefbook.com in Feb. 2004, even he could not imagine the forces it would let loose. His intent was to connect college students. Fbook, which is what this website rapidly evolved into, ended up connecting the world.

  To the children of this connected era, the world is one giant social network. They are not bound — as were previous generations of humans — by what they were taught. They are only limited by their curiosity and ambition. During my childhood, all knowledge was local. You learned everything you knew from your parents, teachers, preachers, and friends.

  With the high-quality and timely information at their fingertips, today’s children are rising normally tame middle class is speaking up against social ills. Silicon Valley executives are being shamed into adding women to their boards. Political leaders are marshalling the energy of millions for elections and political causes. All of this is being done with social media technologies that Fbook and its competitors set free.

  As does every advancing technology, social media has created many new problems. It is commonly addictive and creates risks for younger users. Social media is used by extremists in the Middle East and elsewhere to seek and brainwash recruits. And it exposes us and our friends to disagreeable spying. We may leave our lights on in the house when we are on vacation, but through social media we tell criminals exactly where we are, when we plan to return home, and how to blackmail敲诈us.

  Governments don’t need informers any more. Social media allows government agencies to spy on their own citizens. We record our thoughts, emotions, likes and dislikes on Fbook; we share our political views, social preferences, and plans. We post intimate photographs of ourselves. No spy agency or criminal organization could actively gather the type of data that we voluntarily post for them.

  The marketers are also seeing big opportunities. Amazon is trying to predict what we will order. Google is trying to judge our needs and wants based on our social-media profiles. We need to be aware of the risks and keep working to alleviate the dangers.

  Regardless of what social media people use, one thing is certain: we are in a period of accelerating change. The next decade will be even more amazing and unpredictable than the last. Just as no one could predict what would happen with social media in the last decade, no one can accurately predict where this technology will take us. I am optimistic, however, that a connected humanity will find a way to uplift itself.

  61. What was the purpose of Fbook when it was first created?

  A. To help students connect with the outside world.

  B. To bring university students into closer contact.

  C. To help students learn to live in a connected era.

  D. To combine the world into an integral whole.

  62. What difference does social media make to learning?

  A. Local knowledge and global knowledge will merge.

  B. Student will become more curious and ambitious.

  C. People are able to learn wherever they travel.

  D. Sources of information are greatly expanded.

  63. What is the author’s greatest concern with social media technology?

  A. Inpiduals and organizations may use it for evil purposes.

  B. Government will find it hard to protect classified information.

  C. People may disclose their friends’ information unintentionally.

  D. People’s attention will be easily distracted

  from their work in hand.

  64. What do businesses use social media for?

  A. Creating a good corporate image.

  B. Conducting large-scale market surveys.

  C. Anticipating the needs of customers.


  D. Minimizing possible risks and dangers.

  65. What does the author think of social media as a whole?

  A. It will enable human society to advance at a faster pace.

  B. It will pose a grave threat to our traditional ways of life.

  C. It is bound to bring about another information revolution.

  D. It breaks down the final barriers in human communication.

  Part IV Translation

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.








  In the modern society, with competition becomes increasingly fierce, to find a job is too difficult for the young generation. Academic qualification, as a job a stepping-stone, is an essential factor during the job hunting.

  Some people think that the highly educated must be able to find a good job, because education can prove that a person has a good capacity. Therefore, it is commonly believe that a job seeker with a master degree must be easier to find a promising job than a undergraduate. However, now the company interviewers generally prefer to required a even higher academic qualification, like a doctor degree. Otherwise, the applicants, even though he or she has tremendous potential, will be refused relentlessly.

  As far as I am concerned, education should not be the single standard in an interview. As for the companies, it is not necessarily a good principle as well. Now the whole community often talk about working ability and efficiency. For example, some people may have high academic qualification, but actually his ability is very limited. So both the inpidual and the community ought to change their attitude on academic qualification. We should realize that it is the operational


  The picture vividly depicts that a teaching is asking a pupil to answer a simple math-related question——what’s two plus two? Unfortunately, the child cannot answer such an easy question without tech help. In fact, the phenomenon conveyed in the picture does not surprise us, because as the science and technology develops, the topic concerning the side effects of technological advancement increasingly arouses people’s attention.

  Undoubtedly, the drawer of the picture aims at reminding us that we should use technology in a proper way and not be too tech-dependent to solve the simple problem independently. It is well known that thanks to the development of human civilization, many formerly unimaginable things come into reality. But, while enjoying the convenience produced by tech, we must alert its harm. Being over-addicted to technology will cost our health, independence, wisdom,creativity and even our ability to live.

  Weighing the pros and cons of the technology, perhaps the best policy is to apply it properly. At the same time, we must avoid its harmful part. Furthermore, young people should be advised that depending too much on technology is hardly beneficial for them at all and more importantly they are expected to acquire the capacity to think independently.


  As is vividly depicted in the picture,before the circulation desk stands a student,who wants to find a shortcut to learning,with the librarian pointing it to him.On the lower part of the picture,we can see some English characters which read “' How To Do Well In School Without Studying' is over there in the fiction section”.

  As to me, I think there is no shortcut to success,and the English characters under the picture also mean that the shortcut to success only exist in the virtual world.Whether you can do well in school is based on the effort that you spend on study.That is to say,the more diligent you are,the better your study is.Diligent is momentous and fundamental to people what the soul is vital and significant to us.Had it not been for it,we could not have been success.The story of Ma Yun,founder of China’s online trading empire,best prove the significance of diligent in realizing personal ambition and creating value to the world.

  “The most crucial part of your life,”once wrote a distinguished professor, “is to cultivate the quality of diligent.”I was,and remains,the supporter of the idea that “There is no shortcut to learning.”




  36-40 M.throne C.environmentalist F.notions H.originally N.unnaturally

  41-45 O.urging E.impact I.recognition B.eccentric J.respond


  46—50 JBDKH 51—55 CLFAE


  56—60 DCBAC 61—65 BDABA



  China will endeavor to ensure everyemployee to have average 13.3 years of education. If the goal is achieved, amajority of people entering the labor market will be having Bachelor’s degree。

  In the next few years, China willincrease the number of people in vocational college. Except focusing on thehigher education, the government will find a breakthrough point to ensure thejustice of education. China is trying to optimize education resources and,accordingly, the countryside as well as the less developed areas will receivemore support。

  In addition, the education ministrydecides to improve the nutrition of students in less developed areas andprovides equal opportunities for the children of workers from out of town toreceive education in the city。


  The ideal rural lifestyle reflected inthe art and literature is a great characteristic in Chinese civilization. It islargely attributed to the Taoism affection to nature。

  There are two most preferred topics intraditional Chinese paintings. One kind depicts various happy scenes of familylife in which the elderly play chess and drink tea, young men farm and harvestin the field, women weave or sew clothes and kids play in the outside. Theother depicts the recreations of rural life. In these paintings, fishermen fishon the lake, famers hew or collect herbs on the hills and scholars composepoems or paintings under pine trees. These two themes respectively representthe ideal life of Confucianism and Taoism。


  Since the reform in 1978, with the rapiddevelopment of economy and society, Chinese economy has transferred into marketeconomy from command economy. The average 10% growth of GDP has lifted morethan 500 million people out of poverty. The Millennium Goal of the U.N. hasbeen fully or partially achieved throughout China. At present, the 12thFive-year Plan in China emphasizes the development of service industry and thesolution of imbalance of environment and society. The government has set goalsto reduce pollution, enhance energy efficiency, improve educationalopportunities and medical insurance and expand social security. The 7% growthannual goal demonstrates that the government is concentrating on the quality oflife rather than the speed of growth。

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